Methods Engineering

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    Methods Engineering

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الاسم: image_2148.jpg
الحجم: 100.7 كيلوبايت
رقم التعريف: 224439
    Methods engineering is concerned with the selection,
    development, and documentation of the methods by which work is to be done. It includes the analysis of input and output conditions, assisting in the choice of the processes to be used, operations and work flow analyses, workplace design, assisting in tool and equipment selection and specifications, ergonomic and human factors considerations, workplace layout, motion analysis and standardization, and the establishment of work time standards. A primary concern of methods engineering is the integration of humans and equipment in the work processes and facilities.

    Process Analysis

    Process analysis is that step in the conversion of raw materials to a finished product at which decisions are made regarding what methods, machines, tools, inspections and routings are best. In many cases, the product’s specifications can be altered slightly, without diminishing its function or quality level, so as to allow processing by a preferred


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الاسم: image_2149.jpg
الحجم: 58.7 كيلوبايت
رقم التعريف: 224440

    method. For this reason, it is desirable to have the product’s designer and the process engineer work together before specifications are finalized.

    WORKPLACE DESIGN

    Material usually flows through a facility, stopping briefly at stations where additional work is done on it to bring it closer to a finished product. These workstations, or workplaces, must be designed to permit performance of the required operations, to contain all the tooling and equipment needed to fit the capabilities and limitations of the people working at them, to be safe and to interface smoothly with neighboring workplaces.

    Human engineering and ergonomic factors must be considered so that all work, tools, and machine activation devices are not only within the comfortable reach of the operator but are designed for safe and efficient operation. A workplace chart which analyzes the required actions of both hands is an aid in workplace design.

    METHODS DESIGN

    Methods design is the analysis of the various ways a task can be done so as to establish the one best way. It includes motion analysis—the study of the actions the operator can use and the advantages and/or disadvantages of each variation—and standardization of procedure—the selection and recording of the selected and authorized work methods.
    While ‘‘time and motion study’’ is the more commonly used term, it is more correct to use ‘‘motion and time study,’’ as the motion study to establish the standard procedure must be done prior to the establishment of a standard time to perform that work.

    According to ASME Standard Industrial Engineering Terminology, motion study is defined as . . . the analysis of the manual and the eye movements occurring in an operation or work cycle for the purpose of eliminating wasted movements and establishing a better sequence and coordination of movements. In the same publication, time study is defined as . the procedure by which the actual elapsed time for performing an operation or subdivisions or elements thereof is determined by the use of a suitable timing device and recorded. The procedure usually but not always includes the adjustment of the actual time as the result of performance rating to derive the time which should be required to perform the task by a workman working at a standard pace and following a standard method under standard conditions.
    Attempts have been made to separate the two functions and to assign each to a specialist. Although motion study deals with method and time study deals with time, the two are nearly inseparable in practical application work. The method determines the time required, and the time determines which of two or more methods is the best. It has, therefore, been found best to have both functions handled by the same individual.

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