Constructed Plant Costs

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    Constructed Plant Costs

    A central station serving a utility system is designed to meet not only the existing and prospective loads of the system in which it is to function but also the pooling and integration obligations to adjacent systems. Service requirements which establish station size, type, location, and design characteristics ultimately affect cost of delivered power. Selection of plant type and the overall philosophy followed in design must accommodate a combination of objectives which may include high operating efficiency, minimum investment, high reliability and availability, maximum reserve capability margins, rapid load change capability, quick-start capability, or service adaptability as spinning reserve. For a given plant, the design must account for siting factors such as environmental impacts, subsoil conditions, local meteorology and air quality, quality and quantity of available water supply, access for construction, transmission intertie, fuel delivery and storage, and maintain ability. In addition, plant siting and design will be significantly affected by legal restrictions on effluents which may have adverse impacts on the environment. In the case of nuclear plants, siting must also consider the proximity of population centers and the size of exclusion areas. Reactor plant design must bear the investments required to control radioactive releases and to provide safeguard systems which protect against accidents. Fossil-fueled power plants may be sited adjacent to fuel supplies or in proximity to load centers, thereby increasing transmission costs on the one hand or fuel delivery charges on the other. Depending primarily on climate, plants may be enclosed, semienclosed, or of the outdoor type. Spare auxiliary components can be installed to improve reliability. Increased investments in sophisticated heat cycles and controls, for improved equipment performance, can achieve higher plant efficiencies. Combustion-turbine combined-cycle plant outputs are restricted by both increased elevation and high ambient air temperatures. Hydroelectric sites are frequently very distant from load centers and thus require added costs for extensive transmission facilities. Also, hydroelectric facilities may provide for flood control, navigation, or recreation as by-products of power production. In such instances, total cost should be properly allocated to the various product elements of the multipurpose project.
    An industrial power plant provided to meet the requirements of an isolated load entails design considerations and exhibits cost characteristics which differ from those of a central station power plant assigned an integrated role within a connected generating system. Industrial power plants often produce both process steam and electric power. Industrial facilities must often accommodate both base- and peak-load requirements. They may be designed to provide for on-site reserve capacity or spinning reserve capacity. Frequency control and voltage regulation must be viewed as a special problem because of the limited capability of a single plant to meet load changes. Table 17.5.1 provides typical installed cost data for central station generating plants. The figures represent costs of facilities in place, excluding interest during construction. The cost of land, waste-disposal facilities, fuel in storage, or loaded nuclear fuel is not included. Costs apply to plants completed in 1993. Interest during construction can be estimated by multiplying the simple interest rate per year by the construction


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    period in years and dividing by 2 to reflect the carrying costs on the average commitment of capital toward equipment and labor during construction. Escalation effects for plants to be completed beyond this date may be extrapolated in accordance with anticipated cost trends for labor, material, and equipment. Historical cost trends, by region, as experienced in the power industry, which can be helpful in forecasting future costs, may be determined by use of the figures in Table 17.5.2. Escalation can significantly affect plant costs on future projects, especially in view of the 10- to 12-year engineering and construction periods historically experienced for nuclear facilities and the corresponding 5 to 6 years required for fossil-fueled power plants. In addition to rising equipment, construction labor, and material costs, major factors influencing the upward trend in plant costs include increased investment in environmental control systems, an emphasis on improved quality assurance and plant reliability, and a concern for safety, particularly in the nuclear field. Conventional Steam-Electric Plants Conventional fossil plant investment costs given in Table 17.5.1 are for 500-MW nominal units which are deemed to be representative of future central station fossil units. Costs will vary from those in the table due to equipment arrangement, pollution control systems, foundations, and cooling-water-system



    designs dictated by plant site conditions. The variety of cycle arrangements and steam conditions selected also affects plant capital cost. Plant designers try to economically balance investment and operating costs for each plant. Present-day parameters, in the face of current economics, call for a drum boiler, regenerative reheat cycles at initial steam pressures of 2,400 psig with superheat and reheat temperatures of 1,000°F (539°C). Similar temperature levels are employed for 3,500-psig initial steam pressure supercritical-reheat and double-reheat cycles which require higher investment outlays in exchange for efficiency or heat rate improvements of between 5 and 10 percent. Increased investment costs are also caused by more generous boiler-furnace sizing, and larger fueland ash-handling, precipitator, and scrubber facilities required for burning poor quality coals. Investment increments are also required to provide partial enclosure of the turbine building and furnace structure and to fully enclose the boiler by providing extended housing to weatherprotect duct work and breeching.
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة HeaD Master; الساعة 03-27-2020, 12:25 PM.

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