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Total Quality Management

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  • Total Quality Management

    Total Quality Management



    The following a excerpt from one of my graduate research papers in management. I have included the references but have eliminated the footnotes to preclude anyone from submitting the paper in a college class.
    This topic describes the history and basic tenets of Total Quality Management (TQM), explores the way it operates and some of its advantages and disadvantages, and concludes with a comparison of TQM and the authoritative management style. Dojang owners may find some of the principles of TQM useful in dojang management.
    What is TQM?
    Total Quality Management is a management style based upon producing quality service as defined by the customer. TQM is defined as a quality-centered, customer-focused, fact-based, team-driven, senior-management-led process to achieve an organization’s strategic imperative through continuous process improvement. TQM principles are also known as total quality improvement, world class quality, continuous quality improvement, total service quality, and total quality leadership.
    The word "total" in Total Quality Management means that everyone in the organization must be involved in the continuous improvement effort, the word "quality" shows a concern for customer satisfaction, and the word "management" refers to the people and processes needed to achieve the quality.
    Total Quality Management is not a program; it is a systematic, integrated, and organizational way-of-life directed at the continuous improvement of an organization. It is not a management fad; it is a proven management style used successfully for decades in organizations around the world. TQM is not an end in itself; it is a means to an organizational end. Total Quality Management must not be the primary focus of an organization; it should merely be the means to achieve organizational goals.
    Total Quality Management differs from other management styles in that it is more concerned with quality during production than it is with the quality of the result of production. Other management styles have different concerns. Some major styles are compared with TQM as follows.
    Management-by-Objectives (MBO) emphasizes achieving specified objectives, under the control of individual managers. This approach works against multi-functional process performance and interferes with teamwork and quality. TQM is not objective-oriented, except for its one goal of achieving continuous quality improvement.
    Management-by-Results (MBR) is management by viewing past results as an indication of future results. It has been compared to driving an automobile in a forward direction while looking in the rear view mirror. In today’s fast-paced, quick-changing business environment, managers cannot rely on past results as a predictor of future performance. In contrast, TQM is only concerned with current results and ways to improve them.
    Management-by-Exception (MBE) is management by identifying specific targets for management attention and action. It produces short-term results by reacting to immediate problems, but there is no analysis of the processes that produced the problems, so long-term benefits are lost. On the other hand, TQM is more concerned with correcting processes that produce problems than it is with responding to individual problems.
    Total Quality Management is very different from these and other management systems. It recognizes that quality as determined by the service provider might be much different from quality as perceived by the service receiver. If the customer is not satisfied with a service, then the service does not have quality and the processes that produced the service have failed.
    Total Quality Management requires an organizational transformation-a totally new and different way of thinking and behaving. This transformation is not easy to achieve; it is not for the weak or the statistically untrained. At first glance, many TQM techniques may seem simple and based on common sense, but they must be understood and used correctly for TQM to function properly. Knowing the history of Total Quality Management may help in understanding its techniques.
    History of TQM
    Total Quality Management was developed in the mid 1940s by Dr. W. Edward Deming who at the time was an advisor in sampling at the Bureau of Census and later became a professor of statistics at the New York University Graduate School of Business Administration. He had little success convincing American businesses to adopt TQM but his management methods did gain success in Japan.
    After World War II, General MacArthur took 200 scientists and specialists, including Dr. Deming, to Japan to help rebuild the country. While working on the Japanese census, Dr. Deming was invited by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers to give lectures on his statistical quality techniques. One of the attendees was a past professor to many of Japan’s CEOs. After attending the lectures, the professor told his CEO students that, if they wanted to turn Japan’s economy around in five years, they should attend Dr. Deming’s lectures on using statistics to achieve quality at a reduced cost. Many of the CEOs took the professor’s advice and attended the lectures. Eventually, many Japanese manufacturing companies adopted Dr. Deming’s theories and were able to produce quality products at reduced costs.
    While the Japanese business world was concentrating on producing quality products, businesses in the United States were more concerned with producing large quantities of products. Their emphasis on quantity at the expense of quality let the Japanese, with their inexpensive, high quality products, gain a substantial foothold in American markets.
    In the 1970s and 1980s, many American companies, including Ford, IBM, and Xerox, began adopting Dr Deming’s principles of Total Quality Management. This gradually led to their regaining some of the markets previously lost to the Japanese. Although Total Quality Management gained its prominence in the private sector, in recent years it has been adopted by some public organizations.
    So far, this chapter has defined Total Quality Management, explored its origin, and explained how it emphasizes quality during production. Since quality is so important to any discussion of TQM, the next section explores this key element in detail

  • #2
    لم يعد الالتزام بمواصفات المنتجات الصناعية كافية فى الوقت الحاضر الذى يشهد فيه العالم تنافسا حادا بين السلع والمنتجات فى الاسواق المحلية والعالمية ولقد اصبح من الضرورى للمنشات والشركات الصناعية الايفاء بحاجات المستهلك الضمنية والظاهرية ومعرفة توقعاتهم وتحقيقها فى المنتجات او السلعزلقد ادى هذا الى وضع جودة المنتجات على راس الاهداف التى تسعى المنشات الانتاجية لتحقيقها من خلال استخدام التقنيات الحديثة ووسائل الانتاج التطورة من خلال اتباع احدت الطرق فى ادارة وتنظيم الجودة وكل ما يتعلق بها وتعتبر الادارة الشاملة للجودة Tqm احد المفاهيم الجديدة التى تتبعها معظم شركات الدول التقدمة صناعيا لما لهامن شمولية واسعة وتحقق النجاح الكامل بمشاركة جميع العاملين ابالمؤسسة ودخول السوق بمنتجات تلبى رغبة المستهلك بتكلفة اقل
    ادارة الجودة الشاملة :-تعرف ادارة الجودة الشاملة على انهاطريقة فى ادارة المنظمة محورهاواساسها مشاركة جميع منتسبى المنظمة وهدفها النجاح على المدى البعيد من خلال ارضاء المستهلك .
    ضبط الجودة :-يعرف على انه التقنيات التشغيلية ولافعال التى تستخدم الايفاء بمتطلبات الجودة والتى تهدف الى
    مراقبة العمليات وازالة مسببات الاداء غير المرضى فى جميع مراحل دائرة الجودة.
    دائرة الجودة وهى تتكون من.
    التسويق وبحوت السوق. تحديد متطلبات الجودة التى تفى بحاجات المستهلك.
    التصمم: ترجمة متطلبات الجودة الى خواص تشغيلية ومواصفات محددة للمنتوج.
    المشتريات- توريد مستلزمات الانتاج من مواد وجامات بالجودة المحددة بالتصميم.
    تخطيط عمليات الانتاج-تطوير وسائل وطرق الانتاج بما يضمن تصنيع منتوج جيد .
    الانتاج- تحويل التصاميموالمواد الى منتجات با الجودة المطلوبة .
    التفتيش والاختبار-التاكد من مطابقة المواد والاجزاء والمنتجات للمواصفات المقررة
    التغليف والتخزين- المحافطة على جودة المنتوج وحمايتها اثناء المناولة والنقل والتخزين.
    التوزيع والبيع-المحافظة على جودة المنتوج لحين استلامهومعرفة راى الزبائن بجودته.
    التركيب والتشغيل -تركيب وتشغيل المنتوج فى موقع المستهلك وتقديم الاريشاد فى ذلك
    مساعدة فنية- ادامة وصيانة المنتوج وتوفير قطع الغياروادلة الادامة والصيانة
    التخلص من المنتوج بعد الاستخدام- ارشاد المستهلك الى افضل الطرق بما يحافظ على البيئة.
    وللموضوع بقية.ان شاء لله
    باقى الموضوع:- تاكيد الجودة-سلسةمواصفات الايزو 9000 كاداة لتاكيد الجودة و غيرها ما يخص هذا الموضوع

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    • #3
      ?Can you please give us a useful brief about ISO 9000

      JSam

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      • #4
        :Oh, sorry! I've just saw the topics you posted about ISOs on the following pages

        http://ienajah.zxq.net/vb/showthread.php?t=73

        &

        http://ienajah.zxq.net/vb/showthread.php?t=65

        Thanks a lot

        JSam

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        • #5
          jsam i hope you get all the information you need if wont more tell me

          i will do my best

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          • #6
            thanksssssssssssssssssssssss

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            • #7
              المشاركة الأصلية بواسطة ghada_nora مشاهدة المشاركة
              thanksssssssssssssssss

              wellcooooooooooooome

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              • #8
                مشكر جدا جدا

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                HaMooooDi معرفة المزيد عن HaMooooDi

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