دراسة الحركة Principles Of Motion Study

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    دراسة الحركة Principles Of Motion Study

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    Operation analysis is a primary analysis which eliminates inefficiencies. Motion study is a secondary analysis which refines the method still further. Motion study may and often does suggest further improvements in the factors considered during operation analyses, such as tools, material handling, design, and workplace layouts. In addition, it studies the human factors as well as the mechanical and sets up operations in conformance with the limitations, both physical and psychological, of those who must perform them

    The technique of motion study rests on the concept originally advanced by Frank B. and Lillian M. Gilbreth that all work is performed by using a relatively few basic operations in varying combinations and sequences. These Gilbreth Basic Elements have also been called ‘‘therbligs’’ and ‘‘basic divisions of accomplishment.’’
    The basic elements together with their symbols (for definitions see ASME Industrial Engineering Terminology), grouped in accordance with their effect on accomplishment, are as follows:

    Group 1 is the useful group of basic elements or the ones that accomplish work. They do not necessarily accomplish it in the most effective way, however, and a study of these elements will often uncover possibilities for improvement.
    Group 2 contains the basic elements that tend to retard accomplishment when present. In most cases, they do this by slowing down the group 1 basic elements. They should be eliminated wherever possible.
    Group 3 is the non-accomplishment group. The greatest improvements in method usually come from the elimination of the group 3 basic elements from the cycle. This is done by rearranging the motion sequence, by providing mechanical holding fixtures, and by improving the workplace layout

    An operation may be analysed into its basic elements either by observation or by making a micromotion study of a motion picture of the operation. Methods improvement may be made on any operation by eliminating insofar as possible the group 2 and group 3 basic elements and by arranging the workplace so that the group 1 basic elements are performed in the shortest reasonable time. In doing this, certain laws of motion economy are followed. The following, derived from the laws originally stated by the Gilbreths, are the most important

    1. When both hands begin and complete their motions simultaneously and are not idle during rest periods, maximum performance is approached.
    2. When motions of the arms are made simultaneously in opposite directions over symmetrical paths, rhythm and automaticity develop most naturally.
    3. The motion sequence which employs the fewest basic elements is the best for performing a given task.
    4. When motions are confined to the lowest practical classification, maximum performance and minimum fatigue are approached. Motion classifications are: Class 1, finger motions; Class 2, finger and wrist motions; Class 3, finger, wrist, and forearm motions; Class 4, finger, wrist, forearm, and upper-arm motions; Class 5, finger, wrist forearm, upper-arm, and body motions.

    STANDARDIZING THE JOB

    When an acceptable method has been devised, equipment, materials, and conditions must be standardized so that the method can always be followed. Information and records describing the standard method must be carefully made and preserved, for experience has shown that, unless this is done, minor variations creep in which may in time cause a major problem. In the case of repetitive work, a job is not standardized until each piece is delivered to operators in the same condition, and it is possible for them to perform their work on each piece by completing a set cycle of motions, doing a definite amount of work with the same equipment under uniform working conditions. The operator or operators must then be taught to follow the approved method. Operator training is always important if reasonable production is to be obtained, but it is an absolute necessity where methods have been devised by motion study. It is quite apparent that the operators cannot be expected to discover for themselves the method which the time-study specialist developed as the result of hours of concentrated study. They must, therefore, be carefully trained if they are to be expected to reach standard production. In addition, an accurate time study cannot be made until the operator is following the approved method with reasonable proficiency


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    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة HaMooooDi; الساعة 03-26-2020, 11:53 PM.

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