كتاب Plastics Extrusion Dies

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    كتاب Plastics Extrusion Dies


    Introduction .4
    Chapter one 5
    Design Data 5
    1.Min. & max. shear rate, shear stress and shear strain for some resin, 6
    1.1. Young’s Modulus – Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity – E 6
    1.2. The below table shows tensile modulus for some resin, .6
    2.Shear rate .7
    2.1The maximum shear rate recommended for different polymers can be obtained in
    the following table: 7
    3.Pressure drop 8
    4.Companies (Pressure drop) 8
    5.Shear stress 8
    6. Design considerations of die head 10
    7.Design consideration (half and full diameter) .11
    8.Hard chrome plating 12
    9.Die head concept for some companies, .14
    9.1. Bandera .14
    9.2. Bandera agri concept 14
    9.3. Banderamultilayerconcept .15
    9.4. Reifinghauser concept .16
    9.5. Macchi conceptof thediehead .16
    10.Die head concept .18
    11.Hosokawa alpine .20
    12. Alpine concept for barrier die head 21
    13Notes of some companies: 22
    13.1. Bandera .22
    13.2. ETA 28
    14.Dr. Collin die head concept .32
    15. What is volume flow rate? .39
    15.1. Is there another formula for volume flow rate? .40
    15.2. Incompressibility of liquids 41
    15.3. What is the equation of continuity? .42
    16.Effect of die geometry on flow distribution 43
    17.Dead spot .462
    18.Dead spots in the die and extruder 48
    18. How can we deal with the problem of polymer staying inside the extruder for too
    long? .48
    19.Relaxation plenum .48
    20.Blown film die (Important) .50
    21.Industrial Practice for the Design of Extrusion Dies .51
    22.Practical Optimization Objectives 52
    23.Practical Boundary Conditions and Constraints When Designing Flow Channels 53
    24.Abstraction of the optimization problem .54
    25.Blown film dies 56
    26.Spiral Mandrel Dies 57
    27.Flow coefficient .58
    28.Materials 59
    Chapter Two .64
    Design procedures & Case studies .64
    1.Input Data 65
    2.1. Case study (1) done by Compuplast .66
    2.2. Case study (2) done by Compuplast .72
    2.3. Case study (3) done by Shouman .73
    3.Hosokawa alpine die 74
    4.Macroconcept .75
    5. TEN LAYER DIE TECHNOLOGY .76
    6.FIVE-LAYER STRUCTURES 76
    7.MODULAR DIEDESIGN 77
    8.BEYOND FIVE-LAYERS 78
    9.MATERIALS 79
    10.Avita ABA .80
    11.Alpha marathon 81
    11.1. Alpha marathon .81
    11.2. patented Alpha Layer Sequence Repeater Die Technology. 82
    12.Nano Technology Moving Fast in to Blown, Flat Film 85
    12.1. FLAT FILM/SHEET ADVANCES .87
    13.Patent 88
    13.1. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 88
    13.2. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 89
    13.3. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS .93
    14.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS .94
    15.Patent:2 .1103
    15.1. BLOWING HEAD WITH MELT DISTRIBUTION .110
    Chapter Three 117
    Analysis Procedures 117
    1.Fill 118
    1.1. ANSYS DESIGN MODELER – Basic Tutorial 06 – FILL – Negative Volume .118
    1.2. Setup tutorial .118
    2.Ansys Mesh 119
    2.1. Type and size .121
    2.2. Statistics: (Skewness and aspect ratio) .121
    3.Aspect Ratio 123
    4.Sub task 126
    5.Domain 127
    5.1. To set up 127
    6.Gravity .132
    7.Flow boundary 135
    7.1. Inflow properties 135
    8.Global re-meshing .137
    9. Outputs .138
    10.To review the solution system type .141
    11.Important remarks for the die head flow analysis using Ansys aim 142
    12.ANSYS AIM: Predicting Extrudate Shape Using a Polymer Extrusion Simulation .143
    13.ANSYS AIM: Determining Die Lip Shape Using a Polymer Extrusion Simulation .152
    14.ANSYS AIM: Getting Started – Part 1 160
    15.ANSYS AIM: Getting Started – Part 2 168
    16.Multilayer procedures in Click 2 extrude .174
    Chapter Four 176
    Troubleshooting 176
    1.Flow lines appearing in blownfilm! .177
    1.2. What was the rootcause? 177
    2.How it was solved? 178
    3.Excessive shear .179
    4.Blown Film Troubleshooting Guide (based on die head) .180
    5.Some typical extrusion problems .181
    5.1. Blown film quality and degradation .181
    5.2. Unstable co-extrusion process 183

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