كتاب Cold and Hot Forging

تقليص
X
 
  • تصفية - فلترة
  • الوقت
  • عرض
إلغاء تحديد الكل
مشاركات جديدة

    كتاب Cold and Hot Forging

    اضغط على الصورة لعرض أكبر

الاسم: 51mXOWNRqrL.jpg
الحجم: 36.0 كيلوبايت
رقم التعريف: 225737

    Cold and Hot Forging – Fundamentals and Applications Edited by Taylan Altan, ERC/NSM, Ohio State University Gracious Ngaile, North Carolina State University Gangshu Shen, Ladish Company, Inc.

    Contents
    Preface viii
    Chapter 1 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing .1
    1.1 Classification of Manufacturing Processes .1
    1.2 Characteristics of Manufacturing Processes 2
    1.3 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing 4
    Chapter 2 Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions .7
    2.1 Introduction .7
    2.2 Forging Operation as a System 7
    2.3 Types of Forging Processes .9
    Chapter 3 Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate 17
    3.1 Introduction . 17
    3.2 Stress Tensor 17
    3.3 Properties of the Stress Tensor . 18
    3.4 Plane Stress or Biaxial Stress Condition 19
    3.5 Local Deformations and the Velocity Field 20
    3.6 Strains . 20
    3.7 Velocities and Strain Rates 21
    3.8 Homogeneous Deformation . 21
    3.9 Plastic (True) Strain and Engineering Strain . 23
    Chapter 4 Flow Stress and Forgeability 25
    4.1 Introduction . 25
    4.2 Tensile Test 27
    4.3 Compression Test 29
    4.4 Ring Test . 35
    4.5 Torsion Test . 36
    4.6 Representation of Flow Stress Data 36
    Appendices (CD-ROM only)
    4.1 Determination of Flow Stress by Compression Test at Room
    Temperature
    4.2 Determination of Flow Stress at High Temperature
    4.3 Forgeability and Damage Factor in Cold Forging
    Chapter 5 Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and
    Flow Rules . 51
    5.1 State of Stress . 51
    5.2 Yield Criteria 52
    5.3 Flow Rules 55
    5.4 Power and Energy of Deformation . 56
    5.5 Effective Strain and Effective Strain Rate 57
    Chapter 6 Temperatures and Heat Transfer 59
    6.1 Introduction . 59
    6.2 Heat Generation and Heat Transfer in Metal Forming Processes 59
    6.3 Temperatures in Forging Operations . 60
    6.4 Measurement of Temperatures at the Die/Material Interface 60
    6.5 Measurement of Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient 62


    6.6 Influence of Press Speed and Contact Time on Heat Transfer 64
    Appendices (CD-ROM only)
    6.1 Upset Forging of Cylinders
    Chapter 7 Friction and Lubrication . 67
    7.1 Introduction . 67
    7.2 Lubrication Mechanisms in Metal Forming 68
    7.3 Friction Laws and Their Validity in Forging . 69
    7.4 Parameters Influencing Friction and Lubrication . 69
    7.5 Characteristics of Lubricants Used . 70
    7.6 Lubrication Systems for Cold Forging 70
    7.7 Lubrication Systems for Warm and Hot Forging . 73
    7.8 Methods for Evaluation of Lubricants . 74
    Appendices (CD-ROM only)
    7.1 Ring Compression Test
    7.2 Double Cup Extrusion Test
    Chapter 8 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of
    Flow Stress and Friction 83
    8.1 Introduction . 83
    8.2 Inverse Analysis in Metal Forming . 83
    8.3 Flow Stress Determination in Forging by Inverse Analysis . 85
    8.4 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress
    and Friction 86
    8.5 Example of Inverse Analysis . 86
    Chapter 9 Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations 91
    9.1 Introduction . 91
    9.2 Slab Method of Analysis 93
    9.3 Upper Bound Method and Its Application to Axisymmetric
    Upsetting . 97
    9.4 Finite Element Method in Metal Forming 98
    Chapter 10 Principles of Forging Machines .107
    10.1 Introduction .107
    10.2 Interaction between Process Requirements and Forming Machines
    10.3 Load and Energy Requirements in Forming .108
    10.4 Classification and Characteristics of Forming Machines .110
    10.5 Characteristic Data for Load and Energy .111
    10.6 Time-Dependent Characteristic Data 112
    10.7 Characteristic Data for Accuracy .112
    Chapter 11 Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging .115
    11.1 Introduction .115
    11.2 Hydraulic Presses .115
    11.3 Screw Presses 131
    11.4 Hammers 135
    Chapter 12 Special Machines for Forging 141
    12.1 Introduction .141
    12.2 Transverse or Cross-Rolling Machines .142
    12.3 Electric Upsetters .142
    12.4 Ring-Rolling Mills 143
    12.5 Horizontal Forging Machines or Upsetters 144
    12.6 Rotary or Orbital Forging Machines .145
    12.7 Radial Forging Machines .145
    Chapter 13 Billet Separation and Shearing 151
    13.1 Introduction .151
    13.2 Billet and Sheared Surface Quality 151
    13.3 Shearing Force, Work, and Power 154
    13.4 Shearing Equipment 154
    Chapter 14 Process Design in Impression Die Forging .159
    14.1 Introduction .159
    14.2 Forging Process Variables 160
    14.3 Shape Complexity in Forging .164
    14.4 Design of Finisher Dies .165
    14.5 Prediction of Forging Stresses and Loads 169
    14.6 Design of Blocker (Preform) Dies .171
    Appendix A Example of Load for Forging of a Connecting Rod .177
    A.1 Introduction 177
    A.2 Estimation of the Flow Stress 178
    A.3 Estimation of the Friction Factor 181
    A.4 Estimation of the Forging Load 181
    A.5 Comparison of Predictions with Data from Actual Forging Trials .181
    Appendices (CD-ROM only)
    14.1 Preform Design in Closed Die Forging
    14.2 Flash Design in Closed Die Forging
    Chapter 15 A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in
    Impression-Die Forging 185
    15.1 Introduction .185
    15.2 Effect of Process ParamAppendices (CD-ROM only)
    15.1 ForgePAL: A Computer Program for Estimating Forces in
    Hot Forging with Flash
    Chapter 16 Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using
    Finite-Element Analysis 193
    16.1 Introduction .193
    16.2 Information Flow in Process Modeling .194
    16.3 Process Modeling Input .194
    16.4 Characteristics of the Simulation Code .196
    16.5 Process Modeling Output .197
    16.6 Examples of Modeling Applications 200
    Chapter 17 Cold and Warm Forging .211
    17.1 Introduction .211
    17.2 Cold Forging as a System 213
    17.3 Materials for Cold Forging .213
    17.4 Billet Preparation and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel
    and Aluminum .214
    17.5 Upsetting 215
    17.6 Load Estimation for Flashless Closed-Die Upsetting .216
    17.7 Extrusion 218
    17.8 Estimation of Friction and Flow Stress .221
    17.9 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Selected Formulas 222
    17.10 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Model Test .224
    17.11 Tooling for Cold Forging .225
    17.12 Punch Design for Cold Forging .227
    17.13 Die Design and Shrink Fit 228
    17.14 Process Sequence Design .229
    17.15 Parameters Affecting Tool Life 230
    17.16 Warm Forging 233
    Appendices (CD-ROM only)
    17.1 Examples of Forging Sequences
    17.2 Forward Rod Extrusion
    17.3 Backward Rod Extrusion
    Chapter 18 Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element
    Analysis 237
    18.1 Introduction .237
    18.2 Process Modeling Input .237
    18.3 Process Modeling Output .239
    18.4 Process Modeling Examples .239
    Chapter 19 Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging 247
    19.1 Introduction .247
    19.2 Experiments for Microstructure Model Development 247
    19.3 Microstructure Model Formulation 248
    19.4 Prediction of Microstructure in Superalloy Forging .254
    19.5 Nomenclature of Microstructure Model 254
    Chapter 20 Isothermal and Hot Die Forging 257
    20.1 Introduction .257
    20.2 Isothermal Forging 257
    20.3 Hot-Die Forging .258
    20.4 Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging 258
    20.5 High-Temperature Materials for Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging 259
    20.6 Equipment and Tooling .263
    20.7 Postforging Heat Treatment 269
    20.8 Production of Isothermal/Hot-Die Forging 271
    20.9 Economic Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging 272
    20.10 Summary 273
    Chapter 21 Die Materials and Die Manufacturing 277
    21.1 Introduction .277
    21.2 Die and Tool Materials For Hot Forging .277
    21.3 Heat Treatment 285
    21.4 Die and Tool Materials for Cold Forging 285
    21.5 Die Manufacture 289
    21.6 Surface Treatments .292
    Chapter 22 Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging 295
    22.1 Introduction .295
    22.2 Classification of Die Failures 295
    22.3 Fracture Mechanisms 296
    22.4 Wear Mechanisms .296
    22.5 Analytical Wear Models .297
    22.6 Parameters Influencing Die Failure 297
    22.7 Prediction of Die Fatigue Fracture and Enhancement of Die Life
    in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Modeling (FEM) 307
    22.8 Prediction of Die Wear and Enhancement of Die Life Using FEM 311
    Chapter 23 Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments .319
    23.1 Introduction .319
    23.2 Tolerances in Precision Forging 319
    23.3 Advances in Tool Design .323
    23.4 Advances in Forging Machines .326
    23.5 Innovative Forging Processes 328

    تحميل ملف

    اضغط على الرابط في الاسفل

    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

المواضيع ذات الصلة

تقليص

المواضيع إحصائيات آخر مشاركة
أنشئ بواسطة HaMooooDi, 06-21-2020, 07:18 AM
ردود 0
8 مشاهدات
0 معجبون
آخر مشاركة HaMooooDi
بواسطة HaMooooDi
 
أنشئ بواسطة HaMooooDi, 06-13-2020, 01:34 PM
ردود 0
16 مشاهدات
0 معجبون
آخر مشاركة HaMooooDi
بواسطة HaMooooDi
 
أنشئ بواسطة HaMooooDi, 06-11-2020, 07:48 AM
ردود 0
23 مشاهدات
0 معجبون
آخر مشاركة HaMooooDi
بواسطة HaMooooDi
 
أنشئ بواسطة HaMooooDi, 06-10-2020, 08:10 AM
ردود 0
18 مشاهدات
0 معجبون
آخر مشاركة HaMooooDi
بواسطة HaMooooDi
 
أنشئ بواسطة HaMooooDi, 05-30-2020, 01:15 PM
ردود 2
34 مشاهدات
0 معجبون
آخر مشاركة HaMooooDi
بواسطة HaMooooDi
 
يعمل...
X