تعاريف شاملة و كاملة ل Cnc

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    تعاريف شاملة و كاملة ل Cnc


    What Is CNC




    While people in most walks of life have never heard of this term, CNC has touched almost every form of manufacturing process in one way or another. If you'll be working in manufacturing, it's likely that you'll be dealing with CNC on a regular basis.

    Before CNC
    While there are exceptions to this statement, CNC machines typically replace (or work in conjunction with) some existing manufacturing process/es. Take one of the simplest manufacturing processes, drilling holes, for example.

    A drill press can of course be used to machine holes. (It's likely that almost everyone has seen some form of drill press, even if you don't work in manufacturing.) A person can place a drill in the drill chuck that is secured in the spindle of the drill press. They can then (manually) select the desired speed for rotation (commonly by switching belt pulleys), and activate the spindle. Then they manually pull on the quill lever to drive the drill into the workpiece being machined.

    As you can easily see, there is a lot of manual intervention required to use a drill press to drill holes. A person is required to do something almost every step along the way! While this manual intervention may be acceptable for manufacturing companies if but a small number of holes or workpieces must be machined, as quantities grow, so does the likelihood for fatigue due to the tediousness of the operation. And do note that we've used one of the simplest machining operations (drilling) for our example. There are more complicated machining operations that would require a much higher skill level (and increase the potential for mistakes resulting in scrap workpieces) of the person running the conventional machine tool. (We commonly refer to the style of machine that CNC is replacing as the conventional machine.)



    How CNC works
    There is another article included in this web site called The Basics of CNC that explains how to program, setup, and operate CNC machines in greater detail. Additionally, we offer a series of products aimed at helping you learn how to use CNC machines. Here we're relating how CNC works in very general terms.

    As you might already have guessed, everything that an operator would be required to do with conventional machine tools is programmable with CNC machines. Once the machine is setup and running, a CNC machine is quite simple to keep running. In fact CNC operators tend to get quite bored during lengthy production runs because there is so little to do. With some CNC machines, even the workpiece loading process has been automated. (We don't mean to over-simplify here. CNC operators are commonly required to do other things related to the CNC operation like measuring workpieces and making adjustments to keep the CNC machine running good workpieces.)



    Motion control
    All CNC machine types share this commonality: They all have two or more programmable directions of motion called axes. An axis of motion can be linear (along a straight line) or rotary (along a circular path). One of the first specifications that implies a CNC machine's complexity is how many axes it has. Generally speaking, the more axes, the more complex the machine.

    The axes of any CNC machine are required for the purpose of causing the motions needed for the manufacturing process. In the drilling example, these (3) axis would position the tool over the hole to be machined (in two axes) and machine the hole (with the third axis). Axes are named with letters. Common linear axis names are X, Y, and Z. Common rotary axis names are A, B, and C.

    Machining centers
    Automatic tool changer
    Most machining centers can hold many tools in a tool magazine. When required, the required tool can be automatically placed in the spindle for machining.
    Spindle speed and activation
    The spindle speed (in revolutions per minute) can be easily specified and the spindle can be turned on in a forward or reverse direction. It can also, of course, be turned off.
    Coolant
    Many machining operations require coolant for lubrication and cooling purposes. Coolant can be turned on and off from within the machine cycle.
    The CNC program
    Think of giving any series of step-by-step instructions. A CNC program is nothing more than another kind of instruction set. It's written in sentence-like format and the control will execute it in sequential order, step by step.

    A special series of CNC words are used to communicate what the machine is intended to do. CNC words begin with letter addresses (like F for feedrate, S for spindle speed, and X, Y & Z for axis motion). When placed together in a logical method, a group of CNC words make up a command that resemble a sentence.

    For any given CNC machine type, there will only be about 40-50 words used on a regular basis. So if you compare learning to write CNC programs to learning a foreign language having only 50 words, it shouldn't seem overly difficult to learn CNC programming.

    The CNC control
    The CNC control will interpret a CNC program and activate the series of commands in sequential order. As it reads the program, the CNC control will activate the appropriate machine functions, cause axis motion, and in general, follow the instructions given in the program.

    Along with interpreting the CNC program, the CNC control has several other purposes. All current model CNC controls allow programs to be modified (edited) if mistakes are found. The CNC control allows special verification functions (like dry run) to confirm the correctness of the CNC program. The CNC control allows certain important operator inputs to be specified separate from the program, like tool length values. In general, the CNC control allows all functions of the machine to be manipulated.
    in the ****l removal industry:
    Machining processes that have traditionally been done on conventional machine tools that are possible (and in some cases improved) with CNC machining centers include all kinds of milling (face milling, contour milling, slot milling, etc.), drilling, tapping, reaming, boring, and counterboring.

    In similar fashion, all kinds of turning operations like facing, boring, turning, grooving, knurling, and threading are done on CNC turning centers.

    There are all kinds of special "off-shoots" of these two machine types including CNC milling machines, CNC drill and tap centers, and CNC lathes.

    the ****l fabrication industry:
    In manufacturing terms, fabrication commonly refers to operations that are performed on relatively thin plates. Think of a ****l filing cabinet. All of the primary components are made of steel sheets. These sheets are sheared to size, holes are punched in appropriate places, and the sheets are bent (formed) to their final shapes. Again, operations commonly described as fabrication operations include shearing, flame or plasma cutting, punching, laser cutting, forming, and welding. Truly, CNC is heavily involved in almost every facet of fabrication.

    CNC back gages are commonly used with shearing machines to control the length of the plate being sheared. CNC lasers and CNC plasma cutters are also used to bring plates to their final shapes. CNC turret punch presses can hold a variety of punch-and-die combinations and punch holes in all shapes and sizes through plates. CNC press brakes are used to bend the plates into their final shapes.

    In the electrical discharge machining industry:
    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the process of removing ****l through the use of electrical sparks which burn away the ****l. CNC EDM comes in two forms, vertical EDM and Wire EDM. Vertical EDM requires the use of an electrode (commonly machined on a CNC machining center) that is of the shape of the cavity to be machined into the workpiece. Picture the shape of a plastic bottle that must be machined into a mold. Wire EDM is commonly used to make punch and die combinations for dies sets used in the fabrication industry. EDM is one of the lesser known CNC operations because it is so closely related to making tooling used with other manufacturing processes.

    In the woodworking industry
    As in the ****l removal industry, CNC machines are heavily used in woodworking shops. Operations include routing (similar to milling) and drilling. Many woodworking machining centers are available that can hold several tools and perform several operations on the workpiece being machined.

    Other types of CNC machines
    Many forms of lettering and engraving systems use CNC technology. Waterjet machining uses a high pressure water jet stream to cut through plates of material. CNC is even used in the manufacturing of many electrical components. For example, there are CNC coil winders, and CNC terminal location and soldering machines.

    Job opportunities related to CNC
    There is quite a shortage of skilled people to utilize CNC machines. And the shortage is growing. Everywhere I go I hear manufacturing people claiming that they cannot find skilled people. Unfortunately, it has also been my experience that pay scales have not yet reflected this shortage. Even so, you can make a good wage and develop a rewarding career working with CNC machines. Here are some of the job titles of people working with CNC machine CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control and has been around since the early 1970's. Prior to this, it was called NC, for Numerical Control. (In the early 1970's computers were introduced to these controls, hence the name change.)
    tools.

    #2
    http://www.cncci.com/resources/artic...20is%20cnc.htm
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      #3
      المشاركة الأصلية بواسطة lila_tota مشاهدة المشاركة

      منقول من موقع www.cncci.com وهو موقع رائع جدا ومتخصص في Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

      بس اتقد انو ما فيها شي لما يكون منقول من موقع اجنبي لخدمة طلاب الهندسة الصناعية

      واهلا وسهلا بكم في المنتدى ...

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        #4

        شكــــــــــــراً كتيــــــــر أخــــي محمد

        يعطيك العافيــــــه

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          #5
          شكرا

          شكرا علي مجهودك الجميل حتي لو الموضوع منقول فشكرا لتعبك

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            #6
            Info with hight value
            thank so much

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              #7
              Thanxxxxxx

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